Veda are the sources of knowledge. They are believed to be the most ancient wisdom. The Vedas are four in number Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda respectively. The deities mentioned in Vedas are called Vedic Gods. Basically the Gods and Goddesses to whom saints, sages and common man of vedic age worshipped are the Vedic Gods. They are 33 in number – 12 Aditya, 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras and 2 Ashwini Kumar.
12 Adityas are the 12 out of 33 Vedic Gods.
The names of 12 Aditya are Indra, Dhata, Parjanya, Tvashta Pusha, Aryaman, Bhaga, Vivasvan, Vishnu, Anshuman, Varuna, Mitra. The names vary from text to text.
And 8 Vasu are Dhara/Earth, Anala/Agni, Anila/Wind, Apa/Water, Akasha (space), Surya (Sun), Moon (Chandra), Dhruva (pole star).
The names of 11 Rudra are Mahakal, Tara, Bala Bhuvanesh, Shodash Srividyesh, Bhairava, Chinnamastak, Dhumwan, Baglamukh, Mathang, Kamal, Hanuman.
Finally 2 Ashwini Kumaras. Some people believe Indra and Prajapati in place of Ashwini Kumaras. Some says they are the gods physician and the son of sangya and Lord Sun.
Here Today we are elaborating the 12 Adityas as per one of the ancient text. You may find different names in different texts.
These 12 Adityas play an important role in the evolution of the universe.
He is the first form of Lord Surya. Indra is Aditya Swaroop as the King of Gods. His power is limitless. He has authority over the senses. He has the responsibility of suppressing enemies and protecting the Gods.
Dhata is the Prajapati. He has contributed to the creation of the mass community. Dhata as aditya monitors the people who do not follow social rules and who insult religion. He is also the Creator.
Parjanya is the third Aditya. He lives in the clouds. He has control over the clouds. The water vapors in the clouds cause rain which soothes the temperature of the earth and re-infuse life. Life on earth is not possible without him.
The fourth name of Adityas. His habitat is in vegetation. He is prevalent in plants and trees. With his grace, there is lush vegetation in nature, by which life is found.
The fifth Aditya is Pusha who lives in the food grains. He is in all types of cereals. It is with his grace that nutrition and energy come into the food. Whatever flavor and juice are present in the grain, it comes from his majesty.
Aryaman or Aryama. He is the third son of Aditi. He is one of the solar deities meaning God of fathers. His path in the sky is the Milky Way. The authority of this deity is related to the Sun.
Bhaga is the seventh Aditya. Exists in the form of the organs in the body of beings. The Bhaga Dev God expresses consciousness, energy power, work power, and vibrancy in the body.
The eighth Aditya is Vivasvan. He is Agnidev. The brisk and heat spread in him is from the Sun. Digestion of agriculture and fruits, digestion of food eaten by creatures is done by his fire. He is the father of the eighth Manu, Vaivasvata Manu.
The ninth Aditya is Vishnu. The God who destroys the enemies of the Gods is Vishnu. He is the liberator of all the sufferings of the world. Vishnu as the ninth Aditya who have been born as Trivikram. Trivikram is the Vamana avatar of Vishnu.
Anshuman is the tenth Aditya. The power who sits in the body by becoming a life element in the form of air is Anshuman. Life is vigilant and full of him.
The eleventh Aditya symbolizes the water element, Varuna Dev. He is seated in human beings as water. Being life is the basis of whole nature and life cannot be imagined in the absence of water.
Mitra is the twelfth Aditya. The one who is doing penance for the welfare of the world is considered to have the power to do the welfare of the sages.